Research Pipeline

Publications and Patents

Hexima researchers pride themselves on publishing quality, cutting-edge science in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals. Hexima’s latest publications can be found on the right along with a list of Hexima patents.

Hexima Publications

Gaspar, YM, McKenna, JA, McGinness, BS, Hinch, J, Poon, S, Connelly, AA, Anderson, MA and Heath, RL. Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1J Exp Botany 65: 1541–1550. 2014

Bleackley MR, Hayes BM, Parisi K, Saiyed T, Traven A, Potter ID, van der Weerden NL, Anderson MA., Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is a new antifungal peptide that inhibits cellular magnesium uptake., Mol Microbiol. 2014

Poon IK, Baxter AA, Lay FT, Mills GD, Adda CG, Payne JA, Phan TK, Ryan GF, White JA, Veneer PK, van der Weerden NL, Anderson MA, Kvansakul M, Hulett MD., Phosphoinositide-mediated oligomerization of a defensin induces cell lysis., Elife. 2014

Bleackley MR, Wiltshire JL, Perrine-Walker F, Vasa S, Burns RL, van der Weerden NL, Anderson MA., Agp2p, the plasma membrane transregulator of polyamine uptake, regulates the antifungal activities of the plant defensin NaD1 and other cationic peptides., Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014

Hayes BM, Anderson MA, Traven A, van der Weerden NL, Bleackley MR., Activation of stress signalling pathways enhances tolerance of fungi to chemical fungicides and antifungal proteins., Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014

Lay FT, Poon S, McKenna JA, Connelly AA, Barbeta BL, McGinness BS, Fox JL, Daly NL, Craik DJ, Heath RL, Anderson MA., The C-terminal propeptide of a plant defensin confers cytoprotective and subcellular targeting functions., BMC Plant Biol. 2014

Dracatos PM, van der Weerden NL, Carroll KT, Johnson ED, Plummer KM, Anderson MA., Inhibition of cereal rust fungi by both class I and II defensins derived from the flowers of Nicotiana alata., Mol Plant Pathol. 2014

Hayes BM, Bleackley MR, Wiltshire JL, Anderson MA, Traven A, van der Weerden NL., Identification and mechanism of action of the plant defensin NaD1 as a new member of the antifungal drug arsenal against Candida albicans., Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013

Garvey M, Meehan S, Gras SL, Schirra HJ, Craik DJ, Van der Weerden NL, Anderson MA, Gerrard JA, Carver JA., A radish seed antifungal peptide with a high amyloid fibril-forming propensity., Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013

van der Weerden NL, Bleackley MR, Anderson MA., Properties and mechanisms of action of naturally occurring antifungal peptides., Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013

Stevens JA, Dunse KM, Guarino RF, Barbeta BL, Evans SC, West JA, Anderson MA., The impact of ingested potato type II inhibitors on the production of the major serine proteases in the gut of Helicoverpa armigera., Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013

Conlan BF, Colgrave ML, Gillon AD, Guarino R, Craik DJ, Anderson MA., Insights into processing and cyclization events associated with biosynthesis of the cyclic Peptide kalata B1., J Biol Chem. 2012

Lay FT, Mills GD, Poon IK, Cowieson NP, Kirby N, Baxter AA, van der Weerden NL, Dogovski C, Perugini MA, Anderson MA, Kvansakul M, Hulett MD., Dimerization of plant defensin NaD1 enhances its antifungal activity., J Biol Chem. 2012

Conlan BF, Anderson MA., Circular micro-proteins and mechanisms of cyclization., Curr Pharm Des. 2011

Conlan BF, Gillon AD, Barbeta BL, Anderson MA., Subcellular targeting and biosynthesis of cyclotides in plant cells., Am J Bot. 2011

van der Weerden NL, Hancock RE, Anderson MA., Permeabilization of fungal hyphae by the plant defensin NaD1 occurs through a cell wall-dependent process., J Biol Chem. 2010

Dunse KM, Kaas Q, Guarino RF, Barton PA, Craik DJ, Anderson MA., Molecular basis for the resistance of an insect chymotrypsin to a potato type II proteinase inhibitor., Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010

Dunse KM, Stevens JA, Lay FT, Gaspar YM, Heath RL, Anderson MA., Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field., Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010

Conlan BF, Gillon AD, Craik DJ, Anderson MA., Circular proteins and mechanisms of cyclization., Biopolymers. 2010

Schirra HJ, Anderson MA, Craik DJ., Structural refinement of insecticidal plant proteinase inhibitors from Nicotiana alata., Protein Pept Lett. 2008

van der Weerden NL, Lay FT, Anderson MA., The plant defensin, NaD1, enters the cytoplasm of Fusarium oxysporum hyphae., J Biol Chem. 2008

Barbeta BL, Marshall AT, Gillon AD, Craik DJ, Anderson MA., Plant cyclotides disrupt epithelial cells in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae., Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2008

Gillon AD, Saska I, Jennings CV, Guarino RF, Craik DJ, Anderson MA., Biosynthesis of circular proteins in plants., Plant J. 2008

Jennings CV, Rosengren KJ, Daly NL, Plan M, Stevens J, Scanlon MJ, Waine C, Norman DG, Anderson MA, Craik DJ., Isolation, solution structure, and insecticidal activity of kalata B2, a circular protein with a twist: do Möbius strips exist in nature?, Biochemistry. 2005

Lay FT, Anderson MA., Defensins–components of the innate immune system in plants., Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005

Janssen BJ, Schirra HJ, Lay FT, Anderson MA, Craik DJ., Structure of Petunia hybrida defensin 1, a novel plant defensin with five disulfide bonds., Biochemistry. 2003

Anderson MA, Van Heeswijck R, West J, Bateman K, Lee M, Christeller JT, McDonald G, Heath RL., Proteinase inhibitors from Nicotiana alata enhance plant resistance to insect pests., J Insect Physiol. 1997

Lay FT, Brugliera F, Anderson MA., Isolation and properties of floral defensins from ornamental tobacco and petunia., Plant Physiol. 2003

Lay FT, Schirra HJ, Scanlon MJ, Anderson MA, Craik DJ., The three-dimensional solution structure of NaD1, a new floral defensin from Nicotiana alata and its application to a homology model of the crop defense protein alfAFP., J Mol Biol. 2003

Jennings C, West J, Waine C, Craik D, Anderson M., Biosynthesis and insecticidal properties of plant cyclotides: the cyclic knotted proteins from Oldenlandia affinis., Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2001

Nielsen KJ, Hill JM, Anderson MA, Craik DJ., Synthesis and structure determination by NMR of a putative vacuolar targeting peptide and model of a proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata., Biochemistry. 1996

Hexima Patents

A Method of in vivo Treatment

(2015) Publication Number: Not yet available

A Method of Treatment

(2015) Publication Number: Not yet available

Agents and Methods of Treatment

(2015) Publication Number: Not yet available

Agents and Methods for Treatment of Pathogens

(2015) Publication Number: Not yet available

Use of Antifungal Defensins

(2013) Publication Number: Not yet available

Anti Pathogenic Methods

(2013) Publication Number: WO 2014/078900

Novel Plant Defensins and Use in the Treatment of Proliferative Diseases

(2012) Publication Number: WO/2013/056309

Modified Plant Defensin Useful as Anti-Pathogenic Agents

(2012) Publication Number: WO 2012/106759

Treatment of Proliferative Diseases

(2011) Publication Number: WO/2011/160174

Plant Anti-Pathogen Systems

(2009) Publication Number: WO 2010/015024

Antifungal Methods

(2009) Publication Number: WO 2009/094719

Multi Gene Expression Vehicle

(2007) Publication Number: WO 2007/137329

Novel insect enzymes and inhibitors thereof

(2004) Publication Number: WO 2004/094630

Plant-derived molecules and genetic sequences encoding same and uses thereof

(2002) Publication Number: WO 2002/063011

Novel nucleic acid molecules

(2000) Publication Number: WO 2001/34829

A proteinase inhibitor, precursor thereof and genetic sequences encoding same

(1993) Publication Number: WO 1994/013810



Agrobacterium a naturally occurring soil bacterium that can be used to transfer genes into a plant cell and thus create a transgenic plant
Anti-fungal Protein a protein that limits the growth of or kills a fungal pathogen
Bioassay a biological test to assess whether a molecule limits the growth or kills a biological organism such as a fungus or an insect
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis, a naturally occurring soil bacterium that produces insecticidal toxins
Bt Technology an existing insect resistance technology which involves production of the Bt-insecticidal toxins in transgenic plants
Construct a synthetic gene or series of genes that have been created in the laboratory. Constructs carry the genetic code for production of proteins of interest or a desired trait in a transgenic organism (eg a plant)
Defensin an antifungal protein
Event an event occurs when a transgene is inserted into the host DNA (eg the plant DNA). Different insertions are classified as separate events
Expression when a gene is turned on to produce a protein
Freedom to Operate rights to all the intellectual property needed to commercialise a transgenic plant
Fungal Pathogens any fungus causing disease
Fusarium Wilt a disease caused by Fusarium species which causes wilt in affected plants
Germplasm the heredity material from an organism such as an elite plant cultivar (seed)
Heterozygous any cell or organism having different genes at the same position in a pair of chromosomes. A hemizygous transgenic plant has only one copy of the transgene
Homozygous any cell or organism having identical genes at the same position in a pair of chromosomes
Hybrid the offspring of plants of different species or different varieties of the same species
MGEV Hexima’s Multi-Gene Expression Vehicle, a technology which facilitates the production of multiple proteins in a plant from a single transgene
Peptide a small chain of amino acids
Promoters a piece of DNA that functions as a switch to turn genes on and off
Protein a linear polymer of amino acids linked in a specific sequence determined by a gene
Proteinase an enzyme that catalyses the splitting of proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids
Proteinase Inhibitors (PI’s) proteins that inhibit the catalytic activity of proteinases
Stacking the combination of several Traits in a crop seed
Selectable Marker a gene and it’s product that can be used to select transgenic cells. For example, a gene that confers resistance to an antibiotic or a herbicide
Trait a character conferred either by conventional breeding or by gene technology to a plant, such as insect resistance or fungal resistance
Transient Expression temporary or short lived production of a protein from a transgene
Verticillium Wilt a disease caused by Verticillium dahliae which causes wilt in affected plants